some facts about mars

 

 
This article is about the planet. For other uses, see Mars (disambiguation).
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Mars  Astronomical symbol of Mars
The planet Mars

True-color view of Mars seen through NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope in 1999
Designations
Pronunciation Listeni/ˈmɑrz/
Adjective Martian
Epoch J2000
Aphelion 249,209,300 km
1.665 861 AU
Perihelion 206,669,000 km
1.381 497 AU
Semi-major axis 227,939,100 km
1.523 679 AU
Eccentricity 0.093 315
Orbital period 686.971 days

1.8808 Julian years

668.5991 sols

Synodic period 779.96 days
2.135 Julian years
Average orbital speed 24.077 km/s
Mean anomaly 19.3564°
Inclination 1.850° to ecliptic
5.65° to Sun‘s equator
1.67° to invariable plane[2]
Longitude of ascending node 49.562°
Argument of perihelion 286.537°
Satellites 2
Physical characteristics
Equatorial radius 3,396.2 ± 0.1 km[a][3]
0.533 Earths
Polar radius 3,376.2 ± 0.1 km[a][3]
0.531 Earths
Flattening 0.005 89 ± 0.000 15
Surface area 144,798,500 km2
0.284 Earths
Volume 1.6318×1011 km3[4]
0.151 Earths
Mass 6.4185×1023 kg[4]
0.107 Earths
Mean density 3.9335 ± 0.0004[4] g/cm³
Equatorial surface gravity 3.711 m/s²[4]
0.376 g
Escape velocity 5.027 km/s
Sidereal rotation
period
1.025 957 day
24.622 9 h[4]
Equatorial rotation velocity 868.22 km/h (241.17 m/s)
Axial tilt 25.19°
North pole right ascension 21 h 10 min 44 s
317.681 43°
North pole declination 52.886 50°
Albedo 0.170 (geometric)[5]
0.25 (Bond)[6]
Surface temp.
   Kelvin
   Celsius
min mean max
186 K 210 K[6] 293 K[8]
−87 °C −63 °C 20 °C
Apparent magnitude +1.6 to −3.0[7]
Angular diameter 3.5–25.1″[6]
Atmosphere[6][9]
Surface pressure 0.636 (0.4–0.87) kPa
Composition
 
Mars.ogv
Play video

Animation that rolls Mars around to show all the major features of the Martian topography.

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. Named after the Roman god of war, Mars, it is often described as the “Red Planet” as the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance.[13] Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the volcanoes, valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the highest known mountain within the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and may be a giant impact feature.[14][15]

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