HEALTH AND POPULATION

Health and population

  • Life expectancy for UK men in 2008-10: 78.2 years.
  • Life expectancy for UK women in 2008-10: 82.3 years
  • The UK population is projected to increase from an estimated 62.26 million in 2010, to 71.39 million by 2030.
  • By 2011 the number of people aged 65 and over was predicted to reach 10,494,000, growing to 15,778,000 by 2031.
  • There were an estimated 2.8 million people with diabetes in the UK in 2010, which is double the number from 1996. This is predicted to reach 4 million by 2025. 
  • In England the proportion of men classified as obese increased from 13.2 per cent in 1993 to 26.2 per cent in 2010, and from 16.4 per cent to 26.1 per cent for women over the same timescale.

The #NHS deals with over 1 million patients every 36 hours.

NHS activity

  • The NHS deals with over 1 million patients every 36 hours.
  • In 2009/10 there were 50 per cent more operations completed by the NHS compared to 2000/01, with an increase from 6.494m to 9.748m.
  • Over the same period, median waiting times declined: for coronary artery bypass graft, from 180 to 45 days; for varicose vein surgery, from 162 to 65 days; for cataract surgery, from 154 to 57 days; and for hip replacements, from 212 to 77 days.
  • The total annual attendances at Accident & Emergency Departments was 21.381m in 2010/11.
  • There were 14,891m total hospital admissions in 2010/11, compared to 11.116m in 2000/01.
  • The total number of outpatient appointments in 2010/11 was 87.999m, an increase of 3.8m on the previous year.
  • 74.9 per cent of category A ambulance calls were responded to within eight minutes in 2010/11. 
  • 92.18 per cent of people with admitted pathways (adjusted) were treated within 18 weeks of referral in February 2013, compared to 91.19 per cent a year earlier. The median waiting time was 9.2 weeks, compared to 8.7 a year earlier.
  • 97.51 per cent of people with non-admitted pathways were treated within 18 weeks of referral in February 2013, compared to 97.13 per cent a year earlier. The median waiting time was 3.8 weeks, 0.2 weeks later than normal. 
  • At the end of February 2013, 660,153 patients were on the waiting list for a diagnostic test. Of these, 0.88 per cent had been waiting in excess of six weeks.
  • In the last ten years the number of calls resulting in an emergency team arriving at the scene has almost doubled to 6.61m in 2010/11.

INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS=the #nhs

International comparisons

  • In comparison with the healthcare systems of six other countries (Australia, Canada, Germany, Netherlands, New Zealand and USA) the NHS was found to the second most impressive overall by the Commonwealth Fund in 2010.
  • The NHS was rated as the best system in terms of efficiency, effective care and cost-related problems. It was also ranked second for equity and safe care.
  • However in the categories of long healthy and productive lives (6th) and patient-centred care (7th) the NHS fared less well. 

#nhs stats

NHS funding

  • NHS net expenditure has increased from £49.021 billion in 2001/02 to £104.333bn in 2011/12. The 2013 Budget indicated that expenditure for 2012/13 amounted to around £106.6bn (£102.9bn resources and £3.7bn capital).
  • The money spent per capita on NHS services in England has risen from £1,287 in 2003/04 to £1,979 in 2010/11.
  • The NHS surplus for the 2011/12 financial year (including FTs) was £2.068bn.  

NHS organisations     

In the NHS there are currently:

  • 211 clinical commissioning groups (including 43 authorised without conditions)
  • 162 acute trusts (including 100 foundation trusts)
  • 58 mental health trusts (including 41 foundation trusts) 
  • 36 community trusts (including 18 aspirant foundation trusts and 18 social enterprises)
  • 11 ambulance trusts (including 5 foundation trusts)
  • c.10,500 GP practices
  • c2300 hospitals in the UK  

NHS staff

  • In 2012 the NHS employed 146,075 doctors, 369,868 qualified nursing staff, and 37,314 managers.
  • The number of doctors employed by the NHS has increased by an annual average of 3.4 per cent since 2002.
  • There were 41,615 additional doctors employed in the NHS in 2012 compared to 2002.
  • There were 34,006 more NHS nurses in 2012 compared to ten years earlier. However the total has declined in each of the past two years.
  • 2,475 more practice nurses were employed by GPs in 2012 than ten years earlier.
  • 50.5 per cent of NHS employees are professionally qualified clinical staff.
  • Since 2002 the number of professionally qualified clinical staff within the NHS has risen by 20.14 per cent. This rise includes an increase in doctors of 40 per cent; a rise in the number of nurses of 10 per cent; and 19 per cent more qualified ambulance staff.
  • Medical school intake rose from 5,062 in 1997/98 to 8,035 in 2011/12 – a rise of 58.7 per cent.  

Management

  • Managers and senior managers accounted for 2.74 per cent of the 1.358 million staff employed by the NHS in 2012.
  • Between 2002 and 2012 the NHS recruited 5,020 additional managers, an average annual increase of 1.5 per cent. The number has declined in each of the past three years. In the same period more than 75,600 additional doctors and nurses have been recruited.
  • In 2008/09 the management costs of the NHS had fallen from 5.0 per cent in 1997/98 to 3.0 per cent.

International comparisons

  • In comparison with the healthcare systems of six other countries (Australia, Canada, Germany, Netherlands, New Zealand and USA) the NHS was found to the second most impressive overall by the Commonwealth Fund in 2010.
  • The NHS was rated as the best system in terms of efficiency, effective care and cost-related problems. It was also ranked second for equity and safe care.
  • However in the categories of long healthy and productive lives (6th) and patient-centred care (7th) the NHS fared less well.

.labour.org.uk

Mike, thank you for sharing your views on my speech yesterday and the future of our party.
 
We’ll be reading all the submissions – what you’ve written here will have an impact on what happens next.
 
As you know, I want to have a discussion about how we can go further in building a better politics. To do this well, we need to hear from as many people as possible.
 
Will you share the form you filled in with friends and family? I want to hear their thoughts too. 
 
Here’s the link for you to forward to them:
 
 
Thank you,
 
Ed  

Violent offenses.-= Borderline personality

Violent offenses. Borderline personality is associated with longstanding impulsivity and affective instability, including rage reactions. Therefore, one would suspect that more impulsive and violent offenders might be diagnosed with this disorder. Data seem to support these impressions.

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Destroy user interface control16,

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Destroy user interface control17 For example, Logan and Blackburn

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Destroy user interface control18 examined 95 women who had been incarcerated for violent offenses. Compared with women who had perpetrated minor violence, those with incarcerations related to major violence were four times more likely to be diagnosed with BPD. In keeping with these findings, Hernandez-Avila et al

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Destroy user interface control19 examined 370 alcohol/substance-dependent patients for criminal behavior and found that the diagnosis of BPD was associated with a greater number of pretreatment violent crimes.

 

While few studies have systematically examined the prevalence of BPD in those who commit homicide, Yarvis

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Destroy user interface control20 reported that BPD was one of the more common psychiatric diagnoses in a series of 100 murderers. In a British study of 90 men who were incarcerated for the murder of their female partner, Dixon et al

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Destroy user interface control21 found that 49 percent had borderline personality characteristics. In a German study, Hill et al

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Destroy user interface control22 examined individuals convicted of one-time sexual homicides and found that BPD was well represented. In contrast to these studies, in a French study, Pera and Dailliet

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Destroy user interface control23 found that only eight percent of 99 murderers suffered from BPD.

 

A number of authors have speculated about associations between variations of BPD (i.e., subtypes) and murderous acts. For example, Ansevics and Doweiko

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Destroy user interface control24 present the perspective that serial murderers represent a subtype of BPD, highlighted by manipulativeness. Cartwright argues that rage-based murders are related to a particular subtype of BPD characterized by elements of over-control.

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Destroy user interface control25 Finally, Papazian

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Destroy user interface control26 discusses the role of BPD in the serial killer. In summary, while not definitive at this juncture, the majority of current data and impressions indicate an association between BPD and the impulsive, rage-fueled murder.

 

Borderline Personality and Criminality

Borderline Personality and Criminality

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.
 

Abstract

Borderline personality disorder is characteristically associated with a broad variety of psychiatric symptoms and aberrant behaviors. In this edition of The Interface, we discuss the infrequently examined association between borderline personality disorder and criminality. According to our review of the literature, in comparison with the rates of borderline personality disorder encountered in the general population, borderline personality disorder is over-represented in most studies of inmates. At the same time, there is considerable variation in the reported rates of this Axis II disorder in prison populations, which may be attributed to the methodologies of and populations in the various studies. Overall, female criminals appear to exhibit higher rates of borderline personality disorder, and it is oftentimes associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse, perpetration of impulsive and violent crimes, comorbid antisocial traits, and incarceration for domestic violence.

Mental health crime link studied

man at window

Early intervention “is key to helping the mentally ill”

People with severe mental illness are responsible for one in 20 violent crimes, researchers say.

UK experts studied 13 years of data from Sweden, where population data on mental health and crime is kept.

It was found 18% of murders and attempted murders were committed by people with a mental illness.

Campaigners are split as to whether the number, published in an American Journal of Psychiatry study, is less or more than would have been expected.

 It is now time to stop this stale debate about mental health and violence 
Sainsbury Centre for Public Health

The study, carried out by researchers from Oxford University’s department of psychiatry and Sweden’s Karolinska Institute, looked at data from 1988 to 2000.

They found there were 45 violent crimes committed per 1,000 inhabitants.

Of these, 2.4 were attributable to patients with severe mental illness, which also includes bipolar disorder (manic depression) and other psychoses.

This means that 5.2% of all violent crimes over the period were committed by people with severe mental illness.

When the figures were broken down, it was also found that 15.7% of arsons were committed by people with such illnesses, as were 7.5% of threats and harassment.

Just under 7% of cases of assaulting an officer, 6.3% of aggravated assaults, 5% of sexual offences, 3.6% of robberies and 3% of common assaults were also carried out by this group.

When the researchers looked specifically at violent crimes committed by women aged 25 to 39 – a much lower number than are committed by men – they found 14% were committed by those with serious psychiatric disorders.

‘Under-estimate’

Dr Seena Fazel, the forensic psychiatrist who led the research, said: “The figure of one in 20 is probably lower than most people would imagine.

“Many see those with serious psychiatric disorders as significantly contributing to the amount of violent crime in society.

 This is a very high figure
Mental health crime link studied
Michael Howlett
Zito Trust

“In many ways the most interesting aspect of our findings is that 19 out of 20 people committing violent crimes do so without having any severe mental health problems.”

A spokesman for the Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health said: “Having a severe mental health problem does not make a person violent.

“People with conditions like schizophrenia are in fact more likely to be the victims of violence than others in the population.

“This study shows clearly that people with severe mental health conditions commit a very small proportion of violent crimes and that the widely held prejudices about schizophrenia are inaccurate and unfair.

“It is now time to stop this stale debate about mental health and violence and start looking at how to overcome the prejudice and consequent discrimination that stop people with severe mental health conditions from having an ordinary life in our society.”

But Michael Howlett, director of the Zito Trust, said: “This is a very high figure.

“And I think it is an under-estimate, which does not include those people with personality disorders who commit crimes.

“But the figures do suggest it is possible to intervene early in people’s lives, before crimes are committed.”

However Mr Howlett added: “It’s very important to stress that the majority of people with mental illnesses do not commit crimes.” 

Violence & mental health

Violence & mental health

  A 

third of the public think people with a mental health problem are likely to be violent -in face people with severe mental illnesses are more likely to be victims, rather than perpetrators, of violent crime

 The Facts

  • The majority of violent crimes and homicides are committed by people who do not have mental health problems. In fact, 95 per cent of homicides are committed by people who have not been diagnosed with a mental health problem
  • People with mental health problems are more dangerous to themselves than they are to others: 90 per cent of people who die through suicide in the UK are experiencing mental distress
  • In 2009, the total population in England and Wales was just over 43 million. It is estimated that about one in six of the adult population will have a significant mental health problem at any one time (more than 7 million people). Given this number and the 50–70 cases of homicide a year involving people known to have a mental health problem at the time of the murder, clearly the statistics data do not support the sensationalised media coverage about the danger that people with mental health problems present to the community.
  • According to the British Crime Survey, almost half (47 per cent) of the victims of violent crimes believed that their offender was under the influence of alcohol and about17 per cent believed that the offender was under the influence of drugs. Another survey suggested that about 30 per cent of victims believed that the offender attacked them because they were under the influence of drugs or alcohol. In contrast, only 1 per cent of victims believed that the violent incident happened because the offender had a mental illness. 
  • Contrary to popular belief, the incidence of homicide committed by people diagnosed with mental health problems has stayed at a fairly constant level since the 1990s
  • Substance abuse appears to play a role: The prevalence of violence is higher among people who have symptoms of substance abuse (including discharged psychiatric patients and non-patients).

papworth trust

Papworth TrustImage
Dear campaigner,

Discretionary Housing Payments survey results

In May, we launched a survey about Discretionary Housing Payments (DHP), which are payments supporting those affected by the ‘bedroom tax’. In March 2013, Minister Steve Webb MP announced £25 million extra funding for DHP for disabled people. We wanted to find out how the payments are working.

We received 265 responses to our survey. Thank you to everyone who responded, allowing us to compile the research.

Our survey results show that three in ten disabled people affected by the tax have been refused the Discretionary Housing Payment so far.
 
We found that those who have been refused a DHP were required to cut back on essential living costs: 

  • Nine out of ten (90%) are cutting back on food or bills.
  • Nearly four out of ten (37%) are cutting back on specialist mobility transport.
  • One in four (27%) are cutting back on medical expenses such as medication, therapies and monitoring health conditions.

There are 180,000 disabled people receiving DLA who have been affected by the bedroom tax. However for many, the ‘extra’ bedroom is essential, such as for couples where a partner’s disability make sharing a bed difficult, or for people who need space to store disability equipment.

The survey highlighted the essential need for Discretionary Housing Payments and the improvements required to make it work effectively. Once the results are published we will bring the research to the attention of the media and MPs, to ensure important changes can be made.

Personal Independence Payments consultation

Can you help with a new consultation on the Personal Independence Payment?
 
Personal Independence Payments (PIP) replaced Disability Living Allowance (DLA) nationally on 10 June 2013. Most people on DLA will not be reassessed for PIP until after October 2015.

However the Government is considering making changes to the mobility criteria. Papworth Trust and other disabled people’s organisations raised concerns with the Government that the current mobility criteria might exclude some people with severe mobility difficulties from receiving the enhanced rate of PIP. The enhanced rate is essential for many people who use the payments to buy Motability vehicles, which help them to stay independent.
 
The Government is consulting on the ‘Moving around’ criterion which looks at how far a person can move with and without aids, such as wheelchairs and crutches.
Papworth Trust is responding to the Government’s consultation and would like to speak to a specific group of people who might be affected by the criteria.
 
We would like to speak to you if you:

  • Are aged between 16 to 64 years old
  • Have a physical impairment that affects your mobility
  • Are able to stand, with or without aids such as crutches or a walking stick
  • Are able to walk 20 metres (about the length of two buses), but no more than 50 metres (about the length of an Olympic swimming pool) with or without aids such as crutches or walking sticks. 

You don’t have to:

  • Be receiving Disability Living Allowance (DLA) now
  • Use aids or use them all of the time 

We’ll ask you a few questions by phone or email about how you get around now and what you think about the criteria.
 
If you’d like to get involved please call Nina Zamo, Policy and Campaigns Officer, on 01480 357255 or email nina.zamo@papworth.org.uk

Work Capability Assessment review

Have you been through a Work Capability Assessment?

The Work Capability Assessment (WCA) is undergoing its fourth independent review, by Dr Paul Litchfield. The WCA is the test for Employment and Support Allowance (ESA). It looks at someone’s ability to work, based on their mental and physical capabilities. Since 2010 the WCA has undergone three independent reviews, intended to improve the assessment and ensure its fairness.

Papworth Trust will be speaking to Dr Litchfield and submitting evidence on how the WCA could be improved.